Please see also Chapter 16: Rules, Codes and Legislation for related references that are not referenced directly in the guide but are relevant to arc flash hazard measurement and management.

  1. Introduction to Health and Safety at Work by Phil Hughes and Ed Ferrett (NEBOSH National General Certificate textbook).
  2. European View of Arc Flash Hazards and Electrical Safety by Mike Frain and Jim Phillips paper presented to the IEEE Electrical Safety Workshop 2012 Daytona Beach Florida.
  3. National Fire Protection Association Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace NFPA70E.
  4. IEEE 1584 Guide for Performing Arc Flash Calculations. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.
  5. European Council Directive 89/391/EEC. (EU Workplace Health and Safety Directive)
  6. European Council Directive 89/656/EEC (Use of Personal Protective Equipment)
  7. The Other Electrical Hazard: Electrical Arc Blast Burns– Ralph H Lee IEEE Transactions 1982.
  8. Pressures developed by Arcs – Ralph H Lee IEEE Transactions 1987.
  9. German guide DGUV-I 203-078 Thermal Hazards from Electric Fault Arc
  10. IEC 61482-1-2:2014, Live working - Protective clothing against the thermal hazards of an electric arc - Part 1-2: Test methods - Method 2: Determination of arc protection class of material and clothing by using a constrained and directed arc (box test)
  11. IEC 61482-1-1:2019, Live working – Protective clothing against the thermal hazards of an electric arc – Part 1-1: Test methods – Method 1: Determination of the arc rating (ELIM, ATPV and/or EBT) of clothing materials and of protective clothing using an open arc.
  12. IEC 60269-1 Low voltage fuses
  13. IEC 61439-2 Power switchgear and control gear assemblies (PSC)
  14. Considerations for Using High-Impedance or Low-Impedance Relays for Bus Differential Protection -Ken Behrendt, David Costello, and Stanley E. Zocholl
  15. GAMBICA Technical Guide low-voltage power switchgear and control gear assemblies Edition 2: 2013 A guide to the requirements of: BS EN 61439-1:2011 BS EN 61439-2:2011
  16. Technical report IEC/TR 61641 - Enclosed low-voltage switchgear and control gear assemblies – Guide for testing under conditions of arcing due to internal fault.
  17. A GAMBICA Technical guide internal arc fault capability of assemblies in accordance with IEC/TR 61641
  18. Regulation (EU) 2016/425 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 9 March 2016 on Personal Protective Equipment
  19. European Council Directive 89/656/EEC Use of Personal Protective Equipment
  20. ASTM F2178 / F2178M - 20 Standard Specification for Arc Rated Eye or Face Protective Products.
  21. The BEAMA (British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers’ Association) Guide to Forms of Separation.
  22. Forms of Separation - a time for change - Schneider Electric 2017
  23. IEC 62271-200 High-voltage switchgear and control gear
  24. The Health and Safety (Safety Signs and Signals) Regulations 1996
  25. European Directive 92/58/EEC Safety and/or Health Signs
  26. The Republic of Ireland Guide to the Safety, Health and Welfare at Work (General Application) Regulations 2007 (Part 3 Electricity)
  27. Guideline for Assessing the Competence of Persons involved in Live Working published by the International Social Security Association (ISBN-Nr. 3-9807576-6-8).
  28. Guidance Note GS38 (Fourth edition) on electrical test equipment for use on low voltage electrical systems.
  29. Code of Practice for Electrical Safety Management – Institution of Engineering and Technology ISBN 9781849196697
  30. EN 50110-1:2013 Operation of Electrical Installations.
  31. Observations on the procedures for testing the protective effect of Personal Safety equipment against the effect of arcing – Dr Dirk Borneburg, Dr Frank Wachholz, Jurgen Volger and Dr Helmut Eichinger 2007.
  32. Arc Flash Forum on
  33. Mitigating Personnel Exposure to The Arc Flash Hazard. White paper written by Catherine Irwin, Udo Kerssebaum, Helmut Eichinger, Daniel Doan June 2009.
  34. Fear of Flashover - article written for the Institute of Engineering and Technology Power Engineer magazine by Mike Frain and Jim Phillips July 2007.
  35. Electrical Flashover-Live Proximity Work in Industry-Magazine article written for the Electrical review by Mike Frain, September 2007.
  36. Arc Flash-not just electrocution hazard, parts 1,2 &3 – A trilogy of magazine articles by Mike Frain and Jim Phillips written for the Electrical Review September, October & November 2009.
  37. Guidance for Assessing the Competence of Persons involved in Live Working Issue by the International Social Security Association.
  38. HSR25 Memorandum of Guidance on the Electricity at Work Regulations 1989 (HSE books
  39. HSG85 Electricity at Work - Safe Working Practices (HSE books
  40. HSG230 Keeping Electrical switchgear Safe (HSE books
  41. INDG372 Electrical Switchgear and Safety (HSE books
  42. INDG163REV2 Five Steps to Risk Assessment (HSE books
  43. INDG 354 Safety in Electrical Testing at Work (HSE books
  44. GS38 Electrical Test Equipment for use by Electricians (HSE books
  45. Comprehensive Overview and Comparison of ANSI vs. IEC Short Circuit Calculations: Using IEC Short Circuit Results in IEEE 1584 Arc Flash Calculations”. A. Majd, R. Lou, M. Devadass, J. Phillips, IEEE PCIC Conference proceedings, Cincinnati, OH Sept. 2018.
  46. Understanding Short Circuit Motor Contribution by Darrell Broussard, GE Industrial Solutions.
  47. Complete Guide to Arc Flash Hazard Calculation Studies by Jim Phillips P.E – Brainfiller Inc. 2010.
  48. DC Arc Flash Calculations by Jim Phillips – Posted on, November 20, 2019.
  49. Arc Flash Calculations for Exposures to DC Systems by D.R. Doan – IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol.46 No 5.
  50. DC Arc Models and Incident Energy Calculations by R.F. Ammerman, T. Gammon, P.K. Sen and J.P. Nelson – IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol.46 No 6.
  51. Electric Arcs in open Air by A.D.Stokes and W.T.Oppenlander – Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics 1991.
  52. Simple Improved Equations for Arc Flash Analysis by R. Wilkins – IEEE Electrical Safety Forum, August 30, 2004.
  53. Schneider Electric Cahier technique no. 158 - Calculation of short-circuit currents by Metz-Noblat, Dumas and Poulain.
  54. Method and Rating System for the Evaluation of Thermal Protection, Stoll,A.M. and M.A. Chianta